As stated previously, it is important to emphasize that Industry 4.0 remains mainly a vision. Does that mean that it’s just a vague idea? No, quite the reverse.

However, we see that most companies are currently still operating ad hoc at the early stages of Industry 4.0. However, Industry 4.0’s vision is much more researched and recorded than that of other technologies.

Industry 4.0 is a reality with a documented plan map to achieve the vision

Let’s compare the digital process and the position of the Industrial Internet of Thing, that is mainly what Industry 4.0 is about alongside innovations in mechanics, engineering, and manufacture.

Comprehensive Industry 4.0 strategies companies believe they will succeed even more effectively in many ways, including financial results, social effects, talent, and investment in technology (Deloitte).

Despite the various academic and digital transformation frameworks and techniques developed by many, digital transformation is not academically understood and does not have a consistent industry-wide concept or strategy. It is also true that the business Internet of Things is being introduced.

The implementation of Industrie 4.0 takes place in a specific sense, much like the digital transformation and industrial Internet of Things. However, Industry 4.0 is extensively researched, created, and articulated by a broad forum, including academics, companies, and much more, since it was a specific mandate, and is concerned with more than automation in manufacturing and finally also highlights a vision of transformation.

This simply means that in Industry 4.0, before actual implementation takes place, there are a number of projects, reference models, road maps, and well-described components. It’s very unique.

Just as digital transition needs a gradual approach, Industry 4.0 eventually contributes to the realization of an interconnected vision and reality in the early stages of maturity and regions. However, this vision and reality are much more researched, recorded, and structured in comparison to digital transformation (despite the mentioned need to work in the context of the individual business as well).

Industry 4.0 roadmap basics and maturity models

The above stages can be analyzed in many ways in Industry 4.0 maturity models. Such an approach to maturity explores the viewpoint of knowledge, real operations, and production systems as true Industry 4.0.
In this incremental approach, through which each stage builds on the following and adds meaning, we move from data to information to knowledge and action from the perspective of data. The good old model of the DIKW.

From a Device and Equipment/Machinery perspective, these stages correspond to the ultimate phase that Industry 4.0% aims to achieve: an autonomous reaction of autonomous machines within the Self-Optimizing method (based on the patterns and capabilities which we have built before and AI).

The organization as such has a second maturity approach that correlates to what you will usually see in any project.

What do you want to do and what do you have (assessment today), what are we going to do and the missing links (called Industries 4.0 Methodological Analysis), and a strategic plan, with a specific roadmap for operation, protection, expertise, technology, and execution. What do you want to achieve?

And, as always, control and progress are obviously pursued.

The Industry 4.0 holistic strategy challenge

In certain organizations, the plans for Industry 4.0 are more or less aligned and holistic. One of the greatest problems in so many fields of the industry is the lack of strategy.

The business with a long-term plan and the other company has a wide gap. On the other hand, the so-called light-houses also are involved in the industry. The reality is that most companies have no Industry 4.0 plan and are also strategically short-term. This is not even shocking because some brand strategists scream out for several years now for reasons that have been in part connected with the Zeitgeist and our real-time obsessions here and now, companies all too concentrate on the short-term. Changing demands and financial and competitive reasons play a role.

Nevertheless, within the context of Industry 4.0, it is clear that the vast majority of programs will not eliminate ad hoc and silo initiatives unless they are part of a strategic journey. And they are not very often, leading to less than desired outcomes or even failure.

The emphasis on the short term and the lack of a holistic approach became apparent once again in Deloitte’s Industry 4.0 2020 study.

The rapid speed of change in Industry 4.0 makes maintaining holistic, integrated strategies and looking for sustainable growth opportunities important to organizations, says Deloitte. The survey, however, reveals that leaders are still a long way away. In total, just 10 percent said that they have systematic strategies to address industry 4.0 in their organizations. In the last two-thirds, they said they have no official strategy to address industry 4.0.

The Building Blocks of Industry 4.0 known as Cyber-physical systems

In the Industry 4.0 block on the one side and a 4.0 vision on the other, cyber-physics systems (CPS) are the building blocks.

Cyber-physical systems are combinations of embedded computing and storage options that communicate through networks and include the intelligent industry 4.0 definition in the Internet of Things, Data, and Services, with a focus on processes.

As the word implies, cyber-physical structures simply mean bridges in the industrial sense between digital (cyber) and physical.

Industry 4.0 vision in Cyber-physical systems (CPS)

This might still seem confusing, but cyber-physical structures are complex again. Moreover, in the sense of engineering and industry, the word is not new and well known.

It suits more in the OP side of the converging IT/OT environment typical for Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet. So you would need an understanding of certain basic organizational, development, and mechanical terminology if you want to understand Industry 4.0 or the Industrial Internet.

In Industry 4.0 view, cyber-physical systems focus on state-of-the-art control systems, integrated software systems, and also on an IP address (the connection to the Internet of Things becomes more apparent, although strictly speaking, they are definitely not the same as in the next ‘chapter.’

Cyberphysical systems regard as the next step in the advancement of an ongoing enhancement in the integration of functions in the industry 4.0 setting for mechanics, engineering, and so forth.

With industry 4.0, the next stage in the organization and management of the supply chain over the entire product cycle, this continuous improvement, in which CPS fits start from mechanical systems, has progressed into mechatronics (where we use controls, sensors, and actuators, more words are known in IoT) and adptronics.

Cyber-physical systems allow us to connect and network industrial systems, which then adds to existing manufacturing options.

It creates new opportunities in areas such as surveillance, tracking, and tracking, remote diagnosis, distance support, remote control, condition monitoring, health monitoring systems, etc.

It is with these capabilities that realities, like connected or intelligent factory, smart health, smart cities, smart logistics, and so on, are made possible, as already described, through the networked and the communications of cyber-physical modules and systems.

Cyber-physical systems before Industry 4.0

IP addresses does not explicitly mention in cyber-physical systems and go back over a decade in the original definitions.

The following were described by Professor Edward A. Lee from the University of California at Berkeley: “Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation and physical processes. Embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, usually with feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa”.

Professor Lee links to cyberphysicalsystems.org on his page on the Berkeley website and finds a CPS idea map as a mind map where you can click on different components to read more. The CPS (and bridging cyber/digital and physical) was crucial to Industry 4.0 for the German Industrie 4.0 academics and industrial citizens.

Cyber-physical structures include simulation and twin models measurements, intelligent analysis, self-consciousness (self-configuration), and more. We have previously dealt with some of these problems, like digital twins.

Hopefully, the nature of the idea, meaning, and reality of cyber-physical systems evolution has now become a little clearer. Note: the distinction lies between cyber-physical systems and cybersystems or cyber-physical production systems (CPSS) whereby we shift from the technical aspect to the process and application dimension that is far more essential.

Summary of The Key Characteristics in Cyber-physical systems

Then we look closer at and its place in Industry 4.0 in the Internet of Things. They are practically twins, you can remember.

Before this we summarize several important characteristics that links to the internet of things in cyber-physical systems:

  • The next evolution for manufacturing, mechanics, and engineering is cyber-physical structures. Bridging the digital and physical aspects is important. As is possible thanks to the technology of the Internet and the bridging/convergence of IT and operational technology.
  • Cyber-physical communications systems are capable. They have smart control systems, embedded software, and capabilities for communication. As they can link to a network of cyber-physical systems.
  • Cyber-physical structures can be classified especially. You have IP addresses (Internet Protocol) which means you use Internet technologies. You are part of an Internet of Everything that you can address uniquely (each system has an identifier).
  • Cyber-physical devices fit with controls, sensors, and drives. This was the case in previous phases of cyber-physical (mechatronics and adaptronics) systems. But it plays a major role as we can see with the Internet of Things.
  • The basic building blocks of Industry 4.0 are cyber-physical systems that allow additional capacity in production (and beyond it). It includes track, track, and distance control (more about these capabilities in next section on CPS and Internet of Things).
  • The ability of cyber-physical systems enables intelligent factories, smart logistics (Logistics 4.0), as well as other smart applications. For example, in the fields of electricity, oil and gas, and utilities.

The Internet of Things (IoT): The Building Blocks of Industry 4.0

Time for the Internet of Things, as promised. As stated earlier, the International Internet of Things (IoT) is omnipresent in Industry 4.0.

CPS is primarily about the industrial internet of things. Which you can read on our website and deduce from the above graphic on Internet-physical systems.

Cyber-Physical Systems and Internet of Things: similarities

By definition, the existence of an IP address implies that cyber-physical systems connect to as artifacts (of Things). An IP address often implies a unique network identification of the cyber-physical device. This is also a central aspect of the Internet of Things.

Cyber-physical devices also include sensors, actuators, and all other components of the Internet of Things. Like the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems need connectivity. Depending on the context, exact communication technologies are needed (in both).

The Internet of Things consists of objects with embedded or attached technologies, allowing them to hear, gather and transmit information for a particular purpose. The list of data on movement, location, gasses presence, temperature, and ‘health’ conditions of devices is infinite. This data can collected. These data as such are only the beginning, true meaning begins when IoT project target analyzes and implements.

Depending on the “use case,” IoT devices can also receive data and instructions. All this also applies to cyber-physical structures, primarily connected objects. There are more related features, but you can already see how much is general.

Internet of Things and CPS-enabled capabilities

In addition, what is primarily what the internet of things name for is the new capabilities allowed with cyber-physical systems. It is including structural health monitoring, tracking, and trace monitoring, and so on.

In other words, what do you do with the web of things? Some of them go beyond development in a cross-industry way.

Below are two examples of CPS-enabled capabilities that we will present to you:

  1. In practice, monitoring and traceability possibilities contribute to multiple case use of IoTs, among other items in healthcare, logistics, warehousing, transport, and mining. Lastly, with various solutions and innovations, there are enough applications. You can really track and track the pets and your skateboard with IoT.
  2. Structural monitoring of health is also omnipresent, especially in industries like engineering, maintenance of buildings, facilities, etc. You can monitor the structural protection of any form of an object with the proper sensors and systems. From building bridges and items to manufacturing assets and cyber-physical assets in the manufacture and Industry 4.0.

smart applications, smart plants, and Smart factories

The new features, of which we just mention two and are possible in the Industry 4.0 view thanks to CPS, make clever plants, intelligent factories, and smart things.

What is an intelligent logistics key enabler and so on? In reality, beyond its basic aspects of sensors, actuators, communication capabilities, and data collection/analytics, the (industrial) Internet of things. You can compare these to the Internet of Things. As building blocks of smart applications, of connected objects, individuals, processes, and data.

Another significant similarity is the CPS view of Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things reality. Which is central in Industry 4.0.

In short, the (although advanced) stuff in the manufacturing industrial Internet can literally be called cyber-physical structures. CPS and IoT are more than twins.