Although the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIRA) designated as the framework, the German ‘Plattform Industrie 4.0’ created a so-called Industrial Internet Reference Architecture 4.0 reference model (RAMI 4.0).
RAMI 4.0 and Industry 4.0: international expansion
RAMI 4.0 also plays an increased role in other countries, but it is from Germany, including Industrie 4.0. ‘Platform Industrie 4.0’ simply aims at harmonization at European and international levels.
The European Commission (EC) also interferes even though some EU countries use terminologies. Such as intelligent manufacturing, future industries, digital development, or smart industry.
An EC ‘Digitization of the European Industry’ conference held at the beginning of 2017. Also listed explicitly in different programs are industry 4.0 and RAMI 4.0 on the EC website (and a PDF with the essence of the Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0 is available on it, not without reason).
International cooperation on the Industry 4.0 was one of the topics of above-mentioned conference, Stakeholder Forum, held in early 2017. ‘Schedule Industrie 4.0’ has taken this opportunity to further extend bilateral relations between the Future Partnership of the French Industry and the Intelligent Factory of Italy, among other items (Fabbrica Intelligence). The above-mentioned IIC (Industrial Internet Consortium) and the Japanese Robot Revolution Initiative are collaborators outside the EU (meanwhile, Japan announced its all-encompassing Society 5.0 initiative at the CeBIT 2017 tradeshow).
A summary at the end of this entire article series with over a dozen Industry 4.0 initiatives worldwide on the latest acceptability and use of Industrie 4.0 technology, concepts, and principles, as previously stated.
In practice, it is possibly important to find that you would be able to look up a map, converted into English by ‘Industry Platform 4.0’ right before the Forum, if you look for examples of Industry 4.0.
What are main aspects of RAMI 4.0 (in the following architectural model view) that you need to know?
First, know that the foundations of industry 4.0 and RAMI 4.0 have been developed by two documents.
The Industrie 4.0 workgroup report
In 2013, it released the so-called “Umzetsungsempfehlungen” paper. The report of the Industry 4.0 workgroup covers primarily principles and foundations, including:
- Horizontal inclusion across networks of value-added.
- Vertical integration and production systems networked/connected
- The CPPS technology (cyber-physical production systems)
- Engineering continuity across the whole value chain.
- New labor/working social services.
The strategic execution document of Industry 4.0: where RAMI 4.0 is eligible
A second paper released in 2015 and includes the RAMI 4.0 model, industry 4.0 elements, and a study roadmapping for implementation. The “Umsetzungsstrategie,” a recommendation for the conceptual translation and implementation of Industry 4.0.
The RAMI 4.0 (3 dimensions)
Three dimensions describe the reference model RAMI 4.0 architecture:
- The first element consists of the stages of hierarchy.
- The second dimension includes the life cycle and stream of values.
- The third and last dimension includes the layers known as the RAMI (architecture).
The level of hierarchy
This component of the hierarchy includes 7 aggregation levels: 1) the connected environment, 2) the business, 3) work centers. 4) stations (or machinery), 5) control devices, 6) devices of the field (actuators and sensor), and 7) products.
Essential to note: while these levels are historically seen as “a genuine hierarchy” and portrayed as a pyramid. Industry 4.0 more describes as in an allusion of all aspects, including processes, facilities, goods, organizations, ecosystems, etc. There are just 6 tiers with the business at the top of the pyramid indicating Industry 3.0. While the linked world is much more technologically and business ally related, it should be stressed that because long before anyone even spoke about Industry 4.0. There is a larger company with its ecosystems.
Our papers on omnipresent communication and digital transformation. But with a different hierarchy in smart goods and intelligent factories, covered the heretical dimension a number of times as part of this interconnected environment.
It is also concerned with technology (with similar overall decentralization) (IT and particularly OT) as well as the ubiquity of participants’ interactions at the hierarchical level, which makes the product a part of the network.
The value stream dimension and life cycle
As defined by the word, the life cycle and value stream dimensions cover the different data mapping stages of RAMI 4.0 and the entire value chain, as well as the different processes (and stakeholders).
This is going to be further addressed later because it is relevant in the data segment, based on the preproduction product data model, starting with the concept and development (data on, among others, all the way across further stages downstream, including actual production and the various processes until the production object is the end of life and gets recycled or trashed). The idea: the earlier the knowledge is, the higher the value.
The architectural layer
The third dimension, the layers of architecture, consists of six components: company, operating, information, communication, inclusion, and asset.
Essentially, we are talking about 1) the business processes of the organization; 2) the asset functions; 3) the data requested; 4) the correspondence in the form of knowledge access; 5) the incorporation of the company into the digital world, and 6) the movement of real assets as physical objects.
Combine all three dimensions and you have 3D service-oriented architecture over and above a good picture.
Principles of Industrie 4.0: vertical integration and horizontal
After this RAMI 4.0, as reported in the 2015 paper with Industry 4.0 guidelines and implementation strategies, let us consider a few other concepts for Industry 4.0.
This was set out in the 2013 study on, amongst other items, these principles, and Industry 4.0 working groups reported their results. Recall that, as we’ve discussed and will cover more extensively these guidelines, principles and so on is primarily about manufacture. But Industry 4.0 de facto goes beyond its principles, vision, and elements – and will continue to do this since Industry 4.0 moves from vision to practice to counter the imminent transformation of the other industries as they are already engaging.
Despite the fact, the goal is the same: ecosystem-wide data across different systems and all processes, using data transfer standards and providing the basis for an integrated supply and value chain.
Horizontal integration in Industry 4.0
The integration of IoT systems for and through development and planning processes is horizontal integration.
There are flows of materials, energy, and information within these different systems. In addition, both the internal and the external flows and stakeholders (partners, vendors, consumers, and other ecosystem participants from logistics to innovation) involves.
In other words, horizontal integration includes digitization through entire value chain and supply chain. Which focuses on data sharing and linked information systems. This is not a small job, as you might imagine. First of all, there are quite still a few disconnected IT systems within organizations. For all businesses, whether industrial or not, it is a challenge. The image becomes much more complicated. As you start to search for smooth integration and data sharing with vendors, consumers, and other external stakeholders.
We will also address the importance of early data collection and supply, taking into account the life cycle and value stream factor of Rami 4.0.
There’s still a great deal to work on in this regard, whether it be details about the goods or information about the various processes listed and others across the horizontal value chain (such as the route from the provider and output to the final customer and/or stakeholders/partners).
However, Industry 4.0 and the organization as a whole are critical. The benefits and drivers of this need for horizontally linked information systems are comparable to those we experience in information management.
We speak of customer service and satisfaction, preparation, efficiency, satisfaction, speed, etc., with many customers in the supply chains. If the back-office information on a claim process is, for example, not related to the front end, customer service agents cannot assist the customer quickly enough. If the club’s customer needs information or support on (the state of the process) compare that with information management problems within an insurance scenario. In Industry 4.0 and production it is the same. We are just talking about more stakeholders, processes, and stakeholders which are highly interdependent, more processes and knowledge, etc.
Horizontal integration helps to achieve horizontal collaboration, co-operation, cost savings, value-for-value production, speed (as a way of delivering smooth operations and services but also of quicker marketing and efficiency), and options for building horizontal, informational value-based ecosystems.
But it’s not easy because it’s a no-brainer. Ask every business association. Last but not least: we don’t speak of knowledge alone. At the end of the day, there is the information, observations, and behavior.
Vertical integration in Industry 4.0
Horizontal integration concerns IT networks and supply-value chain flows and the different processes that take place in the supply/value chain.
In other words, IT systems at different stages of development and production are combined into a holistic solution, not at horizontal levels.
This hierarchical level is the field level (sensor interface to the production process), the control level (regulation of both machines and systems), the level of process line or the actual production stage (which needs to be tracked and controlled), the operational level (productive planning, quality management, etc.) and the level of company planning respectively (order management and processing, the bigger overall production planning, etc).
Typical vertical integration solutions and technologies include SCADA systems which regulate manufacturing operations and control levels. SCADA which enables different manufacturing processes and supervisory tasks. Which are in fact widely used in industrial control systems, MES, or in management-level manufacturing systems, and an intelligent Enterprise ERP.
In the first phases of the industry 4.0 transition, as previously stated, the MES (manufacturing execution system) plays a key role in the digital information and communication center.
New Business Models in Industry 4.0 and The automation pyramid
As previously mentioned, Industry 4.0’s prospects reach well beyond automation, higher performance, etc. As Industry 4.0 people say, the real opportunities are to find and introduce new business models.
Industry 4.0 has real opportunities to recognize and incorporate new business models.
Although that’s easier said than done (for many companies achieving certain levels and targets. It’s definitely one of the reasons why they’re mostly centered. As you can read in the article about industrial transformation). It’s the real objective: new data-based market modeling, new ecosystems, and new ways of serving clients satisfy demands.
The aspirational objectives of industrial processing primarily concern the service dimension of the so-called automation pyramid.
Below is a good example of a pyramid for this kind of automation, the goodness of the people. It looks like the above picture of vertical integration. Not like Industry 4.0’s people invented it all, right? The rising importance of the Internet of Things is what we have now. And Industry 4.0 inevitably deals a lot with the entering of IT into a world of OT in conjunction with IoT and IT and OT convergence. And, indeed, it looks much like the DIKW pyramid, a model that has always existed to demonstrate. The way from information to understanding and to wisdom, and in the end, it is all closely linked.
This pyramid of automation actually represents introduction of Industry 4.0 in business and not only looks familiar to people who have already worked in industrial automation. But is also familiar to those who have already learned the strategic implications of IoT strategies.
The automation pyramid we are going to analyze for realization of Industry 4.0 is composed of 4 tiers from a transformation angle.
Think of network model layers such as OSI and others. As there is clearly a technical element and of course IT and IoT people also remember a lot.
In addition, we basically speak about data, from linked properties to services based on identification of properties with sensors and systems. That provide information that analyze and send through networks to other platforms. That provide new services, like other aspects of Industry 4.0, such as vertical integration and horizontal integration. You will find that we’ve adapted it to the ecosystem dimension for implementation of new services a bit. When you ever see this pyramid of simple automation (more below).
Find out the four levels of the Automation Pyramids in our Industry 4.0 section!